Materials for the “Circular Economy”.

We have been vitrifying Municipal Solid Waste Incinerators (MSWI) bottom ash, fly ash and ash coming from other combustion plants (e.g. biomass combustion plants) for 20 years.

Vitrification make them inert and suitable for many applications such as: tiles, glass fibers, concretes, bituminous conglomerates, porous insulating materials, etc..

Leaching test according to national standard are routinely done to guarantee materials suitability.


Vitrification, waste, municipal solid waste incinerator, fly ash, bottom ash, tiles, concrete, glass. Foamglass, bitumen

Contact(s) Monica Ferraris (; Milena Salvo (

Patent: ITTO20130151: VECTER: Structural insulating system for buildings, obtained by waste (patent) (leaflet)


  1. Rincon Romero, A., Salvo, M., Bernardo, E.Up-cycling of vitrified bottom ash from MSWI into glass-ceramic foams by means of ‘inorganic gel casting’ and sinter-crystallization (2018) Construction and Building Materials, 192, pp. 133-140. DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.10.135

  2. Bassani, M., Santagata, E., Baglieri, O., Ferraris, M., Salvo, M., Ventrella, A. Use of vitrified bottom ashes of municipal solid waste incinerators in bituminous mixtures in substitution of natural sands (2009) Advances in Applied Ceramics, 108 (1), pp. 33-43. DOI: 10.1179/174367608X364285

  3. Ferraris, M., Salvo, M., Ventrella, A., Buzzi, L., Veglia, M.Use of vitrified MSWI bottom ashes for concrete production (2009) Waste Management, 29 (3), pp. 1041-1047. DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2008.07.014

  4. Adell, V., Cheeseman, C.R., Ferraris, M., Salvo, M., Smeacetto, F., Boccaccini, A.R. Characterising the sintering behaviour of pulverised fuel ash using heating stage microscopy (2007) Materials Characterization, 58 (10), pp. 980-988. DOI: 10.1016/j.matchar.2006.10.004

  5. Appendino, P., Ferraris, M., Matekovits, I., Salvo, M.Production of glass-ceramic bodies from the bottom ashes of municipal solid waste incinerators (2004) Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 24 (5), pp. 803-810. DOI: 10.1016/S0955-2219(03)00264-4

  6. Karamanov, A., Pelino, M., Salvo, M., Metekovits, I. Sintered glass-ceramics from incinerator fly ashes. Part II. The influence of the particle size and heat-treatment on the properties(2003) Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 23 (10), pp. 1609-1615. DOI: 10.1016/S0955-2219(02)00371-0

  7. Ferraris, M., Salvo, M., Smeacetto, F., Augier, L., Barbieri, L., Corradi, A., Lancellotti, I. Glass matrix composites from solid waste materials (2001) Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 21 (4), pp. 453-460. DOI: 10.1016/S0955-2219(00)00236-3

(add link to leaflet .pdf “All we can do on wastes”)